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October 22

Traditional Hopi elder Thomas Banyacya travels to the United Nations, where he presents a letter reminding international delegates: “This house is built on the original native peoples' land, yet it has not permitted native peoples to speak in the General Assembly.”

A patent is filed by Hughes aircraft company for the “Stratospheric Welsbach Seeding for Reduction of Global Warming”. Environmental consultant Mike Castle later discovers the primary purpose behind chemtrails by reflecting incoming sunlight with Welsbach oxides of metals capable of converting heat trapped by greenhouse gases near the Earth's surface into far-infrared wavelengths, which then radiate into space. Cautioning that the resulting white skies may be unpopular, the Hughes patent nevertheless suggests that these very tiny metal flakes could be “added to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude.”

Aluminum oxide can withstand temperatures far higher than jet engine exhausts. While highly abrasive in larger sizes, a former Alcoa aluminum engineer told this reporter that aluminum in the 10 to 100 micron sizes called for in the sunscreen patent would simply polish jet turbine blades without harming them. (A human hair is about 100 microns across). The engineer added that this “very fine, talcum-like” aluminum powder would appear as a “pure white plume” in the sky.

National Academy of Science $80, 944-page report on the “Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming” includes chapters on “mitigation” describing geoengineering schemes championed by the late Edward Teller and others: “Cloud stimulation by provision of cloud condensation nuclei appears to be a feasible and low-cost option capable of being used to mitigate any quantity of CO2. Perhaps one of the surprises of this analysis is the relatively low costs at which some of the geoengineering options might be implemented.

November 22

During this International Year of the Indigenous People, Hopi elders are invited to address the United Nations in New York. The Hopi Prophecy Message - “Cry of the Earth” - is delivered by Thomas Banyacya, Dan Evehama and Martin Gashwaseoma to the UN General Assembly. Gashwaseoma, who informs representatives of the world's governments that Hopi prophecies foretold how people would become corrupt and turn away from their Creator and abuse the sacred Earth.

“We must act swiftly to save land and lives,” Banyacya tells UN Secretary General  Boutros Ghali. “The Guardian Spirits of the land have begun to act as we warned, i.e. earthquakes, fires, floods, arctic freezes, big winds, violence erupting, incurable diseases and more.”

Banyacya adds, “We were warned long ago that this time would come!” Many ancients Hopi prophecies foretelling the coming of railroads, freeways, the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, and the international space station have come true. Now the Hopi elders inform the world that the Great Purification will be signaled by “cobwebs spun back and forth in the sky.”


U.S. Air Force research study, "Weather As A Force Multiplier: Owning The Weather in 2025" outlines how HAARP and aerial cloud-seeding from tankers could allow USAF “Weather Force Specialists” to fly “aerial obscuration” missions spraying chemicals to form “cirrus shields”. The study further notes that HAARP could be used “to stimulate,” heat and steer sections of the upper atmosphere.  VIDEO

As the first “Category 6” hurricane ever recorded packs sustained winds of 200 mph, Antarctica warms 10-times faster than the global rate, and flagship insurer Lloyds of London is taking on water after losing almost $11 billion in just four years, “Father of the H-Bomb” Edward Teller addresses the International Seminar On Planetary Emergencies. Why not spray a protective chemical “sunscreen” into the upper atmosphere, Teller urges.    Read his "Sunscreen For Planet Earth"

Computer simulations conducted at Lawrence Livermore show that if enough reflective particles can be suspended in the atmosphere to deflect just 1% of incoming sunlight, an expected doubling CO2 emissions would result in no net warming over at least 85% of Earth's surface. This chemical cloud cover will also greatly reduce levels of potentially lethal ultraviolet rays.

But climate modeler Ken Caldeira worries that this massive aerial spraying of reflective particles will further cool the stratosphere by diverting incoming sunlight, creating CFC ice-clouds that “could destroy the ozone layer.”

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientist later tells Columbus Alive, “We originally did this study to show that this program shouldn't be done.”

“Why not?” asks reporter Bob Fitrakis.

Because of negative health effects, Caldeira replies.

January 7-March

William Thomas makes his first of eight appearance on Art Bell's “Coast to Coast” radio show with news of something he calls “chemtrails”.

The Philadelphia Daily News reports that Emergency Room patients were overflowing into the hallways at West Jersey Hospital in Berlin, New Jersey “as a wave of respiratory illnesses swept the area.”

There is a 24-hour waiting period to get into New York State hospital. In San Francisco, TV stations report that paramedics are being diverted to help handle swamped ERs. A person in Portland “heard on the radio that the hospitals in Portland are jammed up with people coming in. Plus in Eugene it seems like everyone is coming down with something. And my wife and I saw some rainbow-colored clouds yesterday. We are calling them chem-clouds.”

A local family physician says that “a nameless virus is bringing at least 10 patients a day into her office and driving some into the hospital, but laboratory tests show only a few are suffering from Type A or other identifiable strains of influenza.” [Lake Havasu Today's News Herald Jan 31/07]

Hospitals are full across the country. In Castle Rock, Colorado, the emergency room is filled with people and the prescription line is out the front door. A woman doctor told a patient it is a new bacteria that they can't fight. She says, “Your sickness will last for up to three months.” How does she know?

One month after I am assigned by the Environment News Service to cover the strange sky patterning, seven Kentucky counties close all the schools because of sick children with “flu-type” symptoms. In Youngstown, Ohio, a doctor tells a patient, “The hospitals were filled with patients having severe problems.”

On February 15, an Akron, Ohio resident reports, “The trails above our home are lower and wider. How long has this been going on? Our kids are coming up with throat, lung, and upper respiratory ailments that no one can figure out. My husband started with the sore throat last week. Also, my elderly neighbor across the street is now in a hospital on a ventilator. She came down with what they thought was pneumonia, then decided it wasn't that. It's a thick lining growing in her lungs, and they do not know how to get rid of it or what it is. A local hospital is leasing an entire floor and it's growing into a hospital company who specializes in upper-respiratory diseases.”

On a morning in late March, observers in Spokane count 33 chemtrails in two and half hours. One says, “We have a police scanner, and we are hearing so many rescue calls for people with breathing difficulties.”

A Chandler, Arizona resident reports that after heavy chemtrail activity, “The doctor's offices and hospitals were totally packed the next week, and one of the nurses I spoke to said they didn't know what was wrong with everyone.”

Lab tests for influenza keep coming up negative. Robert Page, director of the Chemung County Health Department in Elmira, New York, tells reporters, “We know there's a lot of sickness, but our diagnosis shows that it's not the flu.”

MDs across North America tell the New York Times and other newspapers:

“This is the worst crisis I have seen.”

“We have people double- and triple-parked in the ER on stretchers.”

“Respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses are filling up the beds.”

“It was surprising to me how sick they got and how quickly it happened.”

“The increase in respiratory infections may not be due to the flu.”

“We know there's a lot of sickness, but our diagnosis shows that it's not the flu.”

“We've seen a lot of cases that you can't typically classify as flu.”

January 12
“Mystery Contrails May Be Modifying Weather” by William Thomas (ENS

U.S. Air Force aerial tankers may be causing and seeding clouds to modify the weather… Tommy Farmer, a former engineering technician with Raytheon Missile Systems, has been tracking patterns of jet contrails phenomena for more than a year. Farmer has "positively identified" two of the aircraft most often involved in the aerial spraying incidents as a Boeing KC-135 and Boeing KC-10. Both big jets are used by the US Air Force for air to air refueling.

Farmer has collected samples of what he calls "angel hair" sprayed by the mystery aircraft on six occasions since February, 1998… Farmer urges caution to collectors after becoming ill after his first contact with the "angel hair."

Strands of extremely fine polymers could be sprayed into the upper atmosphere to be heated by HAARP. Bernard Eastlund wrote to say, “The experiments described by Thomas seem technically feasible. Recent work on polymeric additives for microwave absorption has been done for commercial curing applications so the polymer fibers are available.”

HAARP's inventor supplied addresses for two producers of polymer capable of being heated by intensely focused Radio Frequency beams. “The heat generation occurs by adding magnetic iron oxide powder to the polymer,” Eastlund explained. FREQUON-B-20 and F-5 PPS polymers “are sensitive in the 1-50 MHz regime. HAARP transmits between 2 and 10 MHz.”

January - August

Clifford Carnicom correlates atmospheric readings by NASA's Climate Diagnostics Center with 21 days of heavy “chemtrail” gridding over Santa Fe, New Mexico. At altitudes where persistent white plumes criss-cross the usually cloudless New Mexico sky, Carnicom finds 30% humidity or less-less than half the moisture needed to form contrails.

March 5

Senator Joseph Lieberman writes to EPA head Carol Browner regarding constituent concerns “about the possible release of toxic chemical substances from jet contrails” and “reports of toxic spraying over populated areas in 41 states.” In calling for a response from the EPA, Senator Lieberman notes, “My constituents further point out recent outbreaks of flu-like symptoms and other sicknesses in Connecticut and other states that may possibly be linked to jet fuel exhaust fumes.”

The EPA does not reply to the senator.


Residents describe “frequent spraying” over Espanola, Ontario. In Espanola, where spray sometimes falls as visible, flesh-stinging particles thick as snow, lab tests of rainwater falling through extensive chemtrail plumes reveals levels of aluminum seven-times higher than existing provincial safety limits for drinking water.

Microscopic quartz particles predominate in the Ontario chemtrail analysis, with one fallout sample taken from a car windshield showing an 80% quartz component. Used by Nikola Tesla in his high-energy experiments, the electrical properties of quartz raises speculation that the chemtrails laid down over Espanola may have been connected with HAARP.

By July, mounting public pressure compels the provincial Ministry of Environment to dispatch an air monitoring van. At a raucous August 10 town meeting, environment officials pronounce the air “safe”-but reportedly refuse to make public the actual air sampling analysis. On August 29, 1999, CBC Newsworld reports from Espanola: “Residents of a small town west of Sudbury, Ontario are anxious. They think they're getting sick, and they think they know why. It involves the U.S. military, the government and strange planes overhead.”

The US Air Force denies flying its planes over Espanola. Residents counter with eyewitness reports and photos of USAF tankers spreading broad white plumes over the region. Canada's national news network notes, “Tempers at the Espanola town council run high. Residents want to know what's flying over their community. Shelly Jordan thinks strange planes might be making her kids sick…In fact, many in the community have reported respiratory problems and strange aches and pains. Town council heard that some believe military jets are dropping material over the town as part of a weather experiment.”

Provincial lab analysis find traces of mica and large quantities of highly reflective quartz grains.
The lab does not classify any of the 1600 molds/fungi found in the rainwater, reporting only that “no one species was dominant.”

The level of aluminum in the chemtrail-contaminated sample is .53 (ppm): 7-times over the previous “safe” threshold set by the Ontario government for drinking water.

One resident notices “a lot of depressed people in Espanola.”

In addition, “A lot of people here in town are complaining of short term memory loss.” People can't remember simple errands, or where they parked their cars. It's become, he added without humor, “a running joke.”

Blaming the chemtrail spraying for widespread respiratory problems and strange aches and pains that were suddenly endemic over a 50 mile area, more than 550 residents of this small Ontario community petitioned to parliament to “ban all cloud-seeding activity by civil or military aircraft, foreign or domestic.”

November 18

On behalf of his Ontario constituents, Member of Parliament Gordon Earle tells the House of Commons: “The petitioners call upon parliament to repeal any law that would permit the dispersal of military chaff or of any cloud-seeding substance whatsoever by domestic or foreign military aircraft without the informed consent of the citizens of Canada thus affected.”

The Department of National Defense eventually replies: “It's not us.”

January 8

This season, the number of acute care patients who actually test positive for the flu declines, while refrigerated lorries are once again being used by the National Health Service as temporary morgues in a grim repetition of scenes outside hospitals last winter. Hospitals on Britain's south coast are forced to store bodies in trailers after nearly 40% of elderly victims of pneumonia contracted from an Influenza-Like Illness die. [London Telegraph Jan 8/00]

I experience severe pain in my left elbow after heavy chemtrail spraying over my remote hillside home following my first appearance on Art Bell's radio show. I also endure an annoying and worrisome twitching left eyelid following heavy chemtrail spraying over my relocated residence off Canada's west coast. Like the pain in my elbow, this symptom of neurotoxin exposure eventually goes away. Gushing nosebleeds are a common chemtrail symptom, along with gastrointestinal problems Other symptoms include disorientation, depression, inexplicable anxiety, and an inability to concentrate.

March 2

when the Associated Press reported that hundreds of KC-135s had been grounded to fix problems in their tail feathers.

The next day, the chemtrail tracking center in Houston reported that daily spraying over the U.S. had suddenly dropped from 24 to just two locations - where KC-10s had most likely taken over. When the big jets were returned to service the following week, Chemtrail sightings climbed right back to previous levels.

May 15

GOVERNMENT / EXPERT REVIEW IPCC-WGIII TAR SOD discusses geoengineering-the deliberate, large-scale manipulations of Earth life-sustaining ecologies. Teller's computers and cohorts believe that 10 million tons of sunlight-reflecting chemicals spread in the atmosphere “would be sufficient to increase the albedo of the Earth by about 1%.”


Greenpeace Switzerland's Climate and Transport expert Cyrill Studer has written an internal memo to his colleagues, stating: “I have heard of the chemtrails phenomenon… For the present, Greenpeace… will not be following up the theme of chemtrails. There is not a sufficiently solid scientific basis… Greenpeace is not an organization that can undertake the verification of a supposed phenomenon.”

Now, a startling admission from GP Canada comes in reply to this letter sent on August 16, 2000:

Hi, could you please let me know about all this UFO aircraft spraying out all these trails that plume out to large thin clouds, after-effects stinging eyes, congestion. Unmarked dark white aircraft with pluming exhaust coming out and expanding outward, August 16, 2000 Vancouver B.C. completely bombarded - seen aircraft myself normal clouds going one way contrail/chemtrails going the other...I would like your explanation. Search a search engine or check out the page I gave you. -Jim

Dear Jim,
It does seem rather unusual and alarming. Greenpeace is aware of this issue, but unfortunately it is not one of our current campaigns…
Peace, Kathy

December 8

At the Victoria International Airport in British Columbia, Canada, unsuspecting aviation Environment Manager Terry Stewart responds to a call the previous day from a local resident demanding to know why intense aerial activity left lingering X's, circles and grid-like plumes over the British Columbia capitol on December 6 and 7.

Stewart's brief reply ends the “airliner” argument:

“Mark, it's Terry Stewart, Victoria Airport Authority. Just calling you back from your comment. From what I gather, it's a military exercise; U.S. and Canadian air force exercise that's goin' on. They wouldn't give me any specifics on it. Hope that helps your interest. Very odd. Thanks a lot. Bye-bye now.”


December 22

Oregon's Wallowa Chieftain reports sightings “web-like material… falling from the sky.” Some locals think the filaments are falling “from three military jets that had been flying back and forth in an east-west flight pattern at high altitude.” Other links the webs to Hopi Prophecy.

Winter 2000
Using Flight Explorer software to identify the airliners and military aircraft passing Houston, Texas, Mark Steadham times their respective plumes. Sample results:

11:00 am ~4-8 hrs. (military)
11:45 am ~2 minutes (commercial)

8:50 pm 10 seconds (commercial)
01:00 pm ~4-8 hrs. (military)

8:50 am 20 seconds (commercial)
09:00 am ~4-8 hrs. (military)
09:40 am ~4-8 hrs. (military)
10:10 am 20 seconds (commercial)

Confirmed contrail observations in study (46)
All confirmed contrails 15 seconds or less 72%
All confirmed contrails 30 seconds or less 80%
All confirmed contrails 2 minutes or less 96%
White plumes left by from Military Aircraft: ~4 hours to 8 hours


A is for Apple. B is for Boy. C is for Chemtrails. At least this is what one American father finds. While checking out his children's science book, SMT is astonished to find seventh graders being taught about chemtrails, and geoengineering the planet.

The chemtrails section is found in the Centre Point Learning Science I Essential Interactions science book. Under “Solutions for Global Warming” section 5.19 features a photo of a big multi-engine jet with a familiar orange/red paint scheme. The caption reads: “Figure 1- Jet engines running on richer fuel would add particles to the atmosphere to create a sunscreen.” The logo on the plane says: “Particle Air”.

Helping habituate children to a life of lethal sunshine and “protective” spray planes, its authors are referring to a sunscreen spread across the sky. “Could we deliberately add particles to the atmosphere?” asks the text, before helpfully suggesting that “Burning coal adds soot to the air.”

In a country whose self-appointed regime routinely censors scientific studies, at least some 7th grade science are more focused on indoctrinating kids with risky techno “quick-fixes” than conscious conservation and common sense. Where are the picture, wonders one parent, “of people planting trees, or turning down thermostats, or bicycling, or any of the other ways not to add to the problem?”

March 7

''Conspiracy nonsense,'' snorts Kenneth Sassen, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Utah. ''These things are at 30,000 to 40,000 feet in the atmosphere. They're tiny particles. They're not going to affect anyone. The cloud-forming contrails that conspiracy theorists find so ominous are perfectly natural. The odd grid and parallel-line patterns are easily explained as contrails blown together by the wind." USA Today interviews me extensively, but cuts my evidence from reporter Tracy Watson's story. So do CBC Radio, and Good Morning America. [USA Today Mar 7/01]

At the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, Al Cooper studies the tiny particles that become nuclei for clumping clouds and raindrops. Spread a few extra nuclei like silver iodide into highly humid air and rainfall results. But in air not already swollen with moisture, especially in near-drought conditions, introducing too many particulates into the atmosphere to compete for a small amount of moisture can act like a sponge, resulting in decreased rainfall.

Vincent Schaefer, a Naval postgraduate who invented iodine cloud-seeding techniques in 1946, (as well as Joseph Moran's contemporary textbook, Meteorology) agree that clouds form when water vapor accretes around particles of grit acting as attracting nuclei. Recent NOAA and NASA atmospheric studies such as TARFOX, ACE-Asia, ACE-I and II, INDOEX and Project SUCCESS have confirmed that the only way to form artificial clouds under conditions of low humidity and less than ideal temperatures is by dispensing additional particles from aircraft.

In other words, when atmospheric conditions prevent the moisture-attracting nuclei left by aircraft engine exhausts from forming contrails, chemicals added to the fuel can leave enough extra particles to create clouds when relative humidity is less than 70%.

Modeled by Paul Demott at Colorado State University's Department of Atmospheric Science, the principle factors determining cirrus cloud development are temperature, relative humidity, and aerosol size. The last variable is of primary importance and may be supplied by high-flying aircraft. The smaller the size of each added nuclei, the faster the rate of cirrus cloud formation.

March 12

In remote rural Maine, radio reporter S.T. Brendt and her partner count 30 big jets in 45 minutes. She finally reaches an Air Traffic Control Manager for the entire northeastern seaboard, who tells her that of the nine jets on his radarscope, she should be able to see only one from her location. Brendt calls the assistant WMWV news director, who takes the news staff outside. Together they count 370 lines in skies usually devoid of aerial activity.

Over three taped interviews, the federal ATC manager we dub “Deep Sky” reveals that chemicals sprayed by specially designated USAF tankers degrade Air traffic Control radar returns. When asked whether the air force spray tankers cross into Canadian air space, he replies “yes.”

When asked the purpose of these missions, the FAA official says he was told “weather modification” after a “higher civil authority” ordered him to divert incoming trans-Atlantic airliners around military formations flying over 37,000 feet on March 12, 20 and 21, 2001. The explanation told to controllers across the nation is later defined as “climate modification”.

May 27

With funding from a concerned businessman, I illustrate a short “Chemtrails 101” script with local chemtrail photos and take the package to a major cable TV company. The resulting advertisement runs around the clock for a month on the “menu” channel of TV listings in Victoria, British Columbia capitol - as well as the viewing area around the country's Canadian Forces air base at Comox. Cable watchers deluge the mainstream media for coverage, and I began getting calls from newsrooms that have ignored the plumes being spread over their heads for years: “Our phones are ringing off the hook, Mr. Thomas. We have to interview you.”

Local newspapers are also pulled into the story. Provoked into addressing the issue, the Comox brass goes ballistic, angrily denouncing the “hoax” on local radio. But this move backfires when the Vancouver Courier runs a story featuring Terry Stewart, who reveals that his information of a “military operation” being conducted by USAF tankers in local skies came from the Comox airbase. Comox air force radar techs confirm tracking the spray planes.

July 19

Entering a thunderstorm 10 miles off West Palm Beach, a B-57 Canberra jet bomber chartered for one million dollars releases some 9,000 pounds of improved Dyn-O-Gel capable of 10-times stronger water absorption. Miami's Channel 5's weather radar shows the huge thunderhead losing moisture. Within seconds, the buildup vanished as one side of the cloud collapsed “like an avalanche”, according to a chase plane cameraman. [Sun-Sentinel July 20/01]

California state officials cannot explain how barium levels have nearly doubled since 1991.

Late 1999

The Idaho Observer observes: “Last year, north Idaho naturopaths determined that the upper respiratory infections that would drag on for months were not viral or bacterial but were fungal.” In a recent survey among 179 patients reportedly suffering from CRI:

* 22% have been to a hospital Emergency Room.

*34% exhibit rashes and sores.

Half or more experience disorientation and suffered from stiff neck and gastro-intestinal problems.

* 72% have a sore throat.

* 78% report severe headaches.

* 81% complain of congestion.

* Almost everyone surveyed experiences short-term memory loss and difficulty in concentrating.
* 99% are found to have fungus in their blood.

Whatever its origins, there is increasing fungus among us. Chemist and botanist Bruce Tanio's list of symptoms: 

Abdominal pain, gas and bloating, indigestion, heartburn, constipation, diarrhea, gastritis.

* Swelling and pain of muscles and/or joints.

*Depression, anxiety, sudden mood swings, lack of concentration, drowsiness, fatigue, insomnia, poor memory, headaches, and light-headedness.

<BGSOUND src="" loop=FALSE>
Special Thanks To Glenn Boyle for his extensive chemtrail photo collection - many of which appear on these pages. If your photo is not credited here, kindly notify me and I will post you rname and website right away.
Thank you. -William Thomas
William Thomas in Capitola, CA   photo by Karen Nevis
Glenn Boyle
Glenn Boyle
USAF "Owning The Weather"

Banyacya at UN

Glenn Boyle


1962 - 2008


William Thomas

[All references from Chemtrails Confirmed 2007 by William Thomas unless otherwise noted.]

                                                 1962 - 2001

Pre-Columbian Era
Long before Columbus “discovered” civilizations long extant throughout the Americas, the Hopi elders of the Southwest foretell of the end of the Fourth Age of Man during a time of Great Purification. This period will begin with the appearance of white people on native lands. [“Koyanisquaatsi” DVD]

August 4-15

British Royal Air Force and Western scientists engage in Operation Cumulus, a rainmaking project that leads to 35 flood-related deaths in Devon, England. [BBC Aug 30/01]

1961 - 1980
US scientists conduct extensive research into weakening hurricanes with cloud-seeding techniques from aircraft in a project known as Project Storm Fury.

Operation Popeye is conducted by the 54th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron to "make mud, not war" by seeding clouds over the Ho Chi Minh Trail to wash out North Vietnamese supply routes. In its failure it leads to ENMOD.

U.S. Navy “Contrail Generation Patent” describes a “Contrail generation apparatus for producing a powder contrail having maximum radiation scattering ability.” The patent notes that the Navy's invention is also suitable “to generate contrails or reflective screens for any desired purpose.”

UN treaty "Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification" (ENMOD) specifically prohibits “the use of techniques that would have widespread, long-lasting or severe effects through deliberate manipulation of natural processes and cause such phenomena as earthquakes, tidal waves and changes in climate and weather patterns.”

The USA has similar laws already in place, including:
A person shall not discharge from any source whatsoever such quantities of air contaminants or other material which cause injury, detriment, nuisance, or annoyance to any considerable number of persons or to the public, or which endanger the comfort, repose, health or safety of any such persons or the public, or which cause, or have a natural tendency to cause, injury or damage to business or property.

August 11

The first of three patents awarded to MIT physicist Bernard Eastlund describe his Method and Apparatus for Altering a Region of the Earth's Atmosphere, Ionosphere and/or Magnetosphere as focusing on weather modification. Commercial patent #4,686,605 claims that directed energy beams of more than one-billion watts can be used for “altering the upper atmosphere wind patterns using plumes of atmospheric particles as a lens or focusing device” to disturb weather thousands of miles away.

May 15

GOVERNMENT / EXPERT REVIEW IPCC-WGIII TAR SOD discusses geoengineering-the deliberate, large-scale manipulations of Earth life-sustaining ecologies. Teller's computers and cohorts believe that 10 million tons of sunlight-reflecting chemicals spread in the atmosphere “would be sufficient to increase the albedo of the Earth by about 1%.”